EASN Thematic Structure

A Working Group consisting of NLR, QinetiQ and ONERA constructed the ASTERA taxonomy for aeronautical R&T. This is a hierarchical taxonomy that builds upon existing European structuring efforts, such as the GARTEUR taxonomy and EUROCONTROL's ARDEP taxonomy.

The ASTERA taxonomy has been defined, reviewed and agreed upon by a considerable group of experts from different fields within the European aeronautics community. This has given the taxonomy a strong foundation. Therefore EASN uses and if necessary modifies this taxonomy in order to approach a classification of university activities in the field of aeronautics.

Human Factors


Human Factors Integration, Man-machine Interface

The integration of separate strands of human factors (HF), and the interfaces between humans and technologies, to provide a holistic picture of the role, effectiveness and improvement of human personnel in the aviation systems.

1. Human-machine/computer interface (HMI, HCI, MMI) - design and evaluation.
2. Displays - Colour, 3D display, Virtual reality, Information presentation.
3. HF integration.
4. Development of methods, tools and processes to support the integration of people with complex systems.
5. Vision modelling and auditory communication studies6. Anthropometric studies.


Human Information Processing

Research into the ways in which humans gather and process information, converting "data" into "knowledge", studies of human sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes.

1. Knowledge engineering.
2. Information gathering.
3. Information processing (aircrew, ATM, ground staff).
4. Cognitive aspects of operator performance.
5. Human error and reliability studies.


Human Performance specific_arealing & Enhancement

Measuring and modelling the effectiveness of people in the aviation system, both on the ground and in the air. Includes the ATM and aircrew (pilot, navigator, flight engineer) requirements for the role of the human in the systems (i.e. display, ergonomics) including airborne, cockpit and ground control systems

1. Crew workload optimisation, error-tolerant systems.
2. Measurement and modelling of controller and pilot performance in the ATM system.
3. Measurement and modelling of aircrew performance.
4. Evaluation of human factors procedures.
5. Team working.
6. Research and techniques to sense and monitor human performance, including physiological sensing and monitoring.
7. Studies of interventions (excluding training) that enhance individual physical and mental performance.


Selection & Training

Covers the requirements for recruitment, selection, training, licensing, working practices and staff management of all personnel in the aviation system, both in the air and on the ground. Addresses aptitude, personal qualities, physical characteristics, manpower modelling and system complementing.

1. Recruitment and selection of aircrew (methods, facilities, evaluation).
2. Recruitment and selection of ATM personnel (methods, facilities, evaluation).
3. Recruitment and selection of ground crew (methods, facilities, evaluation).
4. Training of aircrew (methods, facilities, evaluation).
5. Training of ATM personnel (methods, facilities, evaluation).
6. Training of ground crew (methods, facilities, evaluation).
7. Staff management and working practices (shift work, roistering etc). 8. Certification and licensing aspects.
9. Training needs analysis.
10. Management of skill acquisition and skill fade.


Human Survivability, Protection and Stress Effects

Studies relating to the impact of stressors on human performance, behaviours and well-being. Includes impact of irregular duty cycles, sleep loss, physical and mental strain, prevention of musculo-skeletal injuries. Research to understand issues covering the physical and mental health (including stress) aspects of personnel, both in the air and on the ground.

1. Health and safety/occupational health aspects for aircrew (methods, facilities, evaluation).
2. Health and safety/occupational health aspects for ATM personnel (methods, facilities, evaluation).
3. Health and safety/occupational health aspects for ground crew (methods, facilities, evaluation).
4. Health and safety/occupational health aspects for passengers (methods, facilities, evaluation).
5. Personnel response to blast and fire (injuries sustained, casualty rates etc).
6. Personnel protective systems - aircrew.
7. Personnel protective systems - passengers.
8. Personnel protective systems - ground crew.


Human Element in Security

Optimisation of human performance and contributions through better operator selection, training, and performance monitoring . Relates especially to the various detection technologies, but all personnel in the aviation transport system should be addressed.

1. Pilot training for response to hijack incidents (computer- and simulator-based).
2. Baggage and cargo screener selection.
3. Baggage and cargo screener training (e.g. Threat Image Projection, performance management).
4. Baggage and cargo screener management (shift and duty time rosters, team leadership).
5. Background security checks for personnel having access to secure areas.