A Working Group consisting of NLR, QinetiQ and ONERA constructed the ASTERA taxonomy for aeronautical R&T. This is a hierarchical taxonomy that builds upon existing European structuring efforts, such as the GARTEUR taxonomy and EUROCONTROL's ARDEP taxonomy.
The ASTERA taxonomy has been defined, reviewed and agreed upon by a considerable group of experts from different fields within the European aeronautics community. This has given the taxonomy a strong foundation. Therefore EASN uses and if necessary modifies this taxonomy in order to approach a classification of university activities in the field of aeronautics.
Metallic Materials & basic processes
2. Aluminium alloys.
3. Titanium aluminides.
4. New weldable alloys.
6. Oxidation, corrosion.
7. Assembling processes.
8. Repairing processes.
9. Microscopical analyses.
10. Chemical analyses.
11. Mechanical testing.
Non-Metallic Materials & basic processes
1. Carbide and nitride of silicon.
2. Organometallic precursors of ceramics (alkoxides and organosilicon polymers).
3. Organic precursors of carbon (PAN, pitch).
4. Glass and glass-ceramics.
7. metallic sulphides and fluorides.
9. aramid, glass.
10. carbon and boron nitride nanotubes.
11. thermal barrier coatings.
Composite Materials & basic processes
1. CMC: matrices (carbide and nitride of silicon, glass-ceramics, carbon) ; fibres (silicon carbide, carbon, oxide) and fillers (silicon carbide).
2. OMC: matrices (thermosetting resins, thermoplastic polymers, thermostables and elastomers); reinforcement by fibres (carbon, polyethylene, polyaramide, glass, plant fibres) and by particles (mineral, nanotubes).
3. MMC: matrices (conventional titanium alloys, titanium aluminides, nickel-based superalloys, aluminium and magnesium alloys); fibres (silicon carbide, alumina, carbon) and particles (carbides).
4. Elaboration processes.
5. repairing processes.
Advanced Manufacturing Processes & Technologies
1. Flexible Manufacturing.
3. composite components.
4. fibre-metal laminates.
5. Ribbon Organised Wiring.
6. High speed machining: metal parts.
7. Fabrication simulation: all kind of manufacturing processes to reduce start up time.
8. Welding technologies.
8.1. Friction stir welding : metal structures.
8.2. Laser beam welding: metal structures.
9. Explosive forming.
10. Advanced castings.
11. Super plastic forming: metal structures, in particular titanium.
12. Resin transfer moulding: composite structures.
13. Tau placement: automated fibre placement, composite structures.
14. Thermo-plastics: composite structures.
15. Riveted Joint.
16. Bonded Joint.
17. Conformal antennas.
Structural Analysis and Design
1. Metallic Material constitutive laws (linear elasticity, plasticity, viscolelasticity).
2. Composite laws (linear and non-linear domains).
3. Numerical methods (finite element, solving methods).
4. Composite and multilayer structure modelling.
5. Static Stress analysis with damage and failure criteria.
6. Fatigue behaviour analysis with crack initiation and propagation.
7. Multi-scale modelling methods for CMC, OMC and MMC materials.
8. Buckling (linear and non-linear approaches) for metallic components.
9. Buckling for composite structures with or without stiffener.
10. Post-buckling (crack initiation and delamination propagation).
11. Assembling modelling (rivets, bonding, FSW techniques,..).
12. Optimisation methods.
1. Static aeroelasticity: Linear and non linear structure, Steady aerodynamic, Static deformation, Static divergence, Aeroelastic optimisation.
2. Dynamic aeroelasticity: Structural dynamic (linear and non linear), Unsteady aerodynamic (linear and non linear), Fluid structure coupling, Fluid structure systems coupling, Flutter, Forced response.
3. Numerical aeroelasticity: Unsteady aerodynamic, Stability and response prediction, Aeroelastic optimisation, (multidisciplinary optimisation), Aeroelastic model updating, Aero-servo-elasticity.
4. Experimental aeroelasticity: Unsteady aerodynamic, Flutter model (design, manufacture, ground testing, wind tunnel testing).
5. Aeroelastic Certification: Ground vibration test, Flutter flight test.
Buckling, Vibrations and Acoustics
1 - Structural dynamics:
1.1. Structural dynamic modelling: Material modelling (viscoelastic media, composites, multilayer structure); Numerical method( (Analytical, Finite Element analysis), Statistic Energy Analysis); Linear and non linear analysis; Damping modelling; Structure internal fluid interaction (sloshing).
1.2. Multibody dynamics modelling: Kinematics and dynamics of rigid and flexible components.
1.3. Stress Waves in Solids: Waves propagation.
1.4. Structural Model updating 1.4. Dynamic Structural optimisation.
1.5. Shocks and vibrations: Transient response, Low frequency range, Medium and high frequency ranges.
1.6. Random Vibrations in Structural Mechanics: Linear and non-linear systems, Random excitation (turbulence, noise, acoustic).
1.7. Experimental Methods in Vibrations: Vibration properties of materials, Vibration technique in non-destructive testing, Systems excitations, transducers, Data acquisition, Signal processing and analysis,
1.8- Experimental Modal Analysis, FRF measurements.
2 - Elasto-acoustic:
2.1. Material properties: Homogeneous material, composites, viscoelastic media, multilayer, etc.; Acoustic material.
2.2. Modelling: Analytical approaches, Finite element analysis, Boundary Element analysis, Statistic Energy Analysis.
2.3. Sound Structure Interaction: Acoustic propagation, Acoustic radiation, Acoustic transmission through structures, Acoustic reflection from elastics structures, Acoustic excitation, Acoustic fatigue, Structure and fluid damping.
2.4. Experimental Identification.
Smart Materials and Structures
1. Miniaturisation of sensors (piezoelectric devices, optical fibers,..).
2. Integration of sensors.
3. Active Piezoelectric materials.
4. Electrostrictive materials.
5. Single crystals.
6. Magnetostrictive materials.
8. Shape memory alloys.
11. Control strategies.
12. Multi-functional materials.
13. Health Monitoring System.
14. Control of vibration.
15. Shape Control.
16. Active flow Control.
17. UAV, mini UAV.
Structures behaviour and Material Testing
1. Constitutive laws (metallic and composite materials).
2. Experimental static component behaviour.
3. Non-linear characterisation with and without temperature environment.
4. Buckling testing
5. Diffusitivity measurements (thermal properties. NDT).
6. Electrical and electromagnetic properties measurements (NDT).
7. Optical properties (NDT).
8. X Ray radiography (NDI).
9. Ultrasounds with and without contact (Air coupled or laser).
10. Eddy Current (NDI).
11. Thermography method (NDI).
12. Optical techniques (holography, shearography, Moire).
Internal Noise prediction
1. Material properties: Homogeneous material, heterogeneous structure, Composite material, viscoelastic media, multilayer, etc., Acoustic material, porous material, Material optimisation.
2. Modelling: Analytical approaches, Finite element analysis, Boundary Element Analysis, Statistic Energy Analysis, Energy diffusion;
3. Excitation sources: mechanic, aerodynamic, acoustic; Acoustic propagation, Acoustic radiation, Acoustic transmission through structures, Acoustic reflection from elastics structures.
4. Experimental Identification.
1. Sub-domains according to the origin of the sources:
1.1. main rotor noise.
1.2. tail rotor noise.
1.3. turboshaft engine noise.
2. Sub-domains according to the nature of noise:
2.1. discrete frequency noise related to periodic aerodynamic phenomena The nuisance from helicopter rotors is very much increased when a certain type of discrete frequency noise called "helicopter rotor impulsive noise" occurs. This "impulsive noise" includes Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise in descent and low-to-medium level flight and High Speed Impulsive noise (HSI).
2.2. broadband noise, mainly due to interactions between rotating components (rotor and compressor blades) with incoming turbulence.
1. Active Control algorithms.
2. Techniques in relation with actuators and sensors such as piezoelectric or piezoceramic materials, electrostrictive ceramics? and their mechanical modelisation (link with 208).
3. Automatics and real time systems for the study and for the realisation of controllers.
4. Optimisation of the location of patches on the structures.
5. Modal identification of structures.
6. Knowledge of noise sources and identification of acoustic leaks.
7. Acoustic measurements for the validation of Active Control.
8.1. Optimisation of aerodynamic and acoustic performance through new design of fan blade and vanes, advanced propellers (possibly uneven spaced), and helicopter rotors.
8.2. Novel aircraft designs to mask some sources, or to alleviate installation effects (interactions) on noise generation.
9. Acoustic linings:
9.1. New concepts of passive or adaptive materials.
9.2. Extensions to high temperatures on the exhaust duct.
10. Noise abatement procedures.
Acoustic Measurements and Test Technology
1. Sensors and transducers: condenser microphone, loudspeakers, acoustic driver, accelerometer, sound intensity probe, smart transducer, pistonphone, DLV.
2. Units: physical units (Pa, dB), psychoacoustical units (dBA,PNdB, EPNdB, Leq,?).
3. Common measurements: calibration, absorption, convection, refraction, reverberation, near-field and far-field, intensimetry.
4. Machinery and airframe noise measurements: anecho?c room, reverberation chamber, wind tunnel, flight tests, internal and external noise.
5. Noise source localisation and ranging: microphone array, acoustic mirror.
6. Acoustic signal recording and processing: narrow band frequency analysis, third octave and octave bands, correlations, random noise, impulsive noise.
7. Certification procedures.
8. Acoustic detection.
9. Active noise control.
1. Flight deck barrier devices (e.g. impenetrable cockpit doors).
2. Bomb-proof cargo containers (to contain effects of explosions).
Comment: see also Area 'AIRCRAFT AVIONICS SYSTEMS & EQUIPMENT'.