A Working Group consisting of NLR, QinetiQ and ONERA constructed the ASTERA taxonomy for aeronautical R&T. This is a hierarchical taxonomy that builds upon existing European structuring efforts, such as the GARTEUR taxonomy and EUROCONTROL's ARDEP taxonomy.
The ASTERA taxonomy has been defined, reviewed and agreed upon by a considerable group of experts from different fields within the European aeronautics community. This has given the taxonomy a strong foundation. Therefore EASN uses and if necessary modifies this taxonomy in order to approach a classification of university activities in the field of aeronautics.
Integrated Design and Validation
Methods and IT tools for Collaborative Product & Process Engineering
1. Virtual Enterprise.
2. Secure IT infrastructure.
3. Workflow management systems.
4. Virtual environments for collaborative working.
5. Product Lifecycle interaction.
6. Virtual Conferencing.
On-board systems engineering
1. Integration system technologies.
2. Modelling and Simulation (including rapid and virtual prototyping).
3. Incremental Certification.
4. Interconnecting technology.
5. Avionics rig testing.
6. Laboratory systems testing.
7. Interface Control Specification methods: Mechanical interface, Electronic interface, Data exchange.
Environmental and EM compliance engineering process
1. Performance base specifications to define the real use environments.
3. Advanced Environmental and EMI protection design and verification measures.
7. Shock testing.
Flight/ Ground Tests
1. Test planning: Test plan, Flight plan, Test schedule.
2. Test specification: Test cards, Performance, Flight Control, Runway performance, Weapon (integration), Reliability & Maintainability, Interior Noise, Exterior noise, Logistics, Navigation and Communication, Air Data, Flight envelope, Propulsion, Environmental extremes, Avionics, Antenna patterns, Handling qualities, Aero-elasticity/Flutter, Human factors, Ground-Vibration, Pre-flight, Airframe systems, Simulator data gathering.
3. Hazard analysis/Safety: Safety of flight, Recovery, Minimum crew, Risk assessment, On board safety provisions, Engine failure, Deep stall, Flight test safety monitoring, EMI-EMC, Crew safety training, Safety procedures.
4. Test conduct: Test cards / Responsibility distribution / Procedures / Briefing and Debriefing / Test report.
5. Instrumentation system: Measurement , Data Acquisition and Recording equipment, Calibration.
6. Data processing and analysis: Data archiving, Data reduction, Engineering units, Data retrieval , Flight Test Data Base, Telemetry, Ground monitoring.
7. Logistics support: Spares, Repair, Maintenance, Training.
8. Certification & Qualification: Certification reports, Airworthiness authorities, Certificate of Airworthiness.
1. Technology management : Product improvement strategies through technology refresh and insertion methods.
2. Obsolescence Management1. Reliability Engineering methods.
3. COTS management, COTS reliability prediction and assessment methods.
4. Design for Maintainability.
5. Testability: built-in Test.
6. Integrated modular avionics.
7. Open systems architectures.
8. Training: embedded training.
9. Whole-life Cost Analysis / Life-cycle cost analysis, Total ownership costs: Re-design costs, Cost matrix.
1. Certification of new technologies and operations.
2. Certification of air-worthiness, certification requirements for airborne andnon-airborne systems.
3. Incremental certification.
4. System safety assessment.
5. HW / SW certification.
6. Improvement of existing rules and regulations (e.g. Cross-wind criteria, contaminated runway criteria), in the future particularly relevant to ATM in view of complete lack of certification of ATM systems).
Fault Tolerant Systems
1. Fault tolerant mechanisms: Redundancy, Backup (hot, cold,..), Voting mechanism, Fault detection.
2. Parallel processing / Synchronisation mechanisms.
3. Fault propagation, Isolation of fault effects.
Risk and Safety management: analysis (internal/external) and policy:
1. Safety / Risk management: Operational safety assessment, Risk determination.
1.1. Review of proposed operation.
1.2. Hazard identification and clustering.
1.3. Identification of conflict scenarios.
1.4. Expert judgement to evaluate frequency and severity of hazards.
1.5. Mitigating measures.
2. Safety requirements (rules and regulations):
2.1. Requirement based testing.
2.2. Requirement evaluation.
2.3. Requirement development.
1. Safety perception modelling.
2. Third party risk modelling.
3. Wake vortex induced risk modelling.
4. Collision risk modelling.
5. Dependability modelling.
6. Controlled Flight Into Terrain modelling.
7. Flight security modelling.
8. Bird strike risk modelling.
9. Safety management modelling, etc.
Air Safety Data analysis
1. Trend identification.
3. Analysis of flight data from day-to-day operations, risk analysis.
4. Compilation of a sample of Air Traffic Management related accidents.
5. Compilation of exposure data (i.e. number of conducted flights).
6. Estimation of accident rates.
7. Accident Sample Inclusion Criteria.
8. Accident taxonomy.
9. Accident data breakdown: Flight phase, Event types, Fatalities, World regions.
1. Means of compliance: Fault tolerance.
2. Reliability: Analysis, Requirements.
3. Deterministic: Functionality, Resources bound, Time bound.
Security / Risk analysis
1. Vulnerability assessment methodologies.
2. Security metrics (e.g. US Total Architecture for Aviation Security) to "score" various security systems.
3. Security audits (of airlines, airports).
4. Threat assessments.
Aeronautical Software Engineering
1. Requirements capture.
2. Object-oriented analysis & design.
3. Software implementation.
4. Software testing: Integration testing, White/Black box test, Code coverage.
5. Software verification & validation.
6. Software certification: software safety, redundancy, built-in test.
7. Software maintenance.
Advanced information processing
1. Radar data processing.
2. Multi sensor data fusion.
3. Real-time systems.
4. Command, Control, Communications & Intelligence (C3I).
5. Situation monitoring.
6. Alarm management.
Collaborative Decision Making
1. Multi-agent systems.
2. Task modelling.
3. Negotiation strategies.
4. Agent-based distributed architecture.
5. Information distribution.
Simulator environments & Virtual reality
1. Training Environment: real-time geographically distributed flight-simulations.
2. Mission preparation, rehearsal & evaluation.
3. Concept development.
4. Materiel design.
5. Materiel testing.
6. Personnel selection.
7. Task analysis.
8. Man-in-the-loop simulation.
Decision Support Systems
1. User task modelling.
2. (Intelligent) user interface.
3. Situation assessment.
4. Planning & monitoring (Sequencing, Time scheduling, Mission planning support, Flow planning, Resource allocation, Feedback control, Guidance).
5. Crew assistant.
6. Traffic flow optimisation.
Information management & Knowledge management (Methods & tools)
1. Knowledge gathering.
2. Knowledge representation.
3. Knowledge retrieval.
4. Product data management systems.
6. Competence management.
7. Web technology.
8. Semantic web.
9. Data mining.
1. Characteristics of an autonomous system:
1.1. Autonomous behaviour: The system should be able to act without the direct intervention of humans (or other agents) and should have control over its own actions and internal state.
1.2. Reactive behaviour: The system should perceive their environment and respond in a timely fashion to changes that occur in it.
1.3. Pro-active behaviour / Goal oriented behaviour: The system should not simply act in response to their environment, they should be able to exhibit opportunistic, goal-directed behaviour and take the initiative where appropriate.
1.4. Social behaviour: The system should be able to interact, when they deem appropriateFurther characteristics:
2. Mission planning.
3. Sensor data processing: processing step before data fusion.
4. Autonomous decision making.
5. Expert systems.
6. Threat avoidance / Conflict resolution.
Development of operational research methods & tools
1. Stakeholder analysis.
2. Development of OR methods.
3. Development of OR tools.
4. Validation of OR tools.
Development of synthetic environment & virtual reality tools
1. General systems engineering aspects of VR/SE development.
2. Development methodologies for virtual reality (VR)/synthetic environment (SE) tools.
3. Development of VR/SE tools in aircraft context - for cockpit/aircrew.
4. Development of VR/SE tools in aircraft context - for passenger cabin/aircrew.
5. Development of VR/SE tools in aircraft context - for cargo area.
6. Development of VR/SE tools in airport context - for passenger handling area.
7. Development of VR/SE tools in airport context - for cargo/baggage area.
8. Development of VR/SE tools in airport context - for aircraft movement area.
9. Development of VR/SE tools in ATM context - for controllers.
10. Understand the physiological and psychological interactions between humans and VR/SE.
Aircraft Performance Assessment
1. Development of aircraft modelling and analysis methods and tools.
2. Modelling and analysis of aircraft capacity.
3. Modelling and analysis of passenger handling.
4. Modelling and analysis of cargo handling.
Airport Performance Assessment
1. Development of airport operations modelling and analysis methods and tools.
2. Modelling and analysis of aircraft handling/capacity.
3. Modelling and analysis of passenger handling processes and procedures (e.g. checking-in, immigration, boarding etc).
4. Modelling and analysis of cargo handling.
1. Development of business modelling methods and tools.
2. Use of business modelling methods and tools (e.g. yield/revenue management).
3. Analysis of regulatory aspects of aviation.
Numerical Models (including Fast Time Simulation)
1. Numerical models.
2. Mathematical models.
3. System dynamics model.
4. Faster-than-real-time time simulators.
5. Software issues - common software modules, software libraries.
Real Time Simulators
1. Real-time simulator..
2. Experimental simulator..
3. Software issues - common software modules, software libraries.
General Purpose Equipment
1. R&D equipment:
2. Test equipment:
3. Measurement equipment:
4. Development platforms - flying laboratory, experimental aircraft:
5. Laboratory equipment, calibration equipment:
Reference Data for R&D Use and live/RT data Use
1. Reference Data (bibliographies, abstracts service, statistical information):
2. Development of libraries of statistics, reference data, bibliographies etc:
3. Ground systems information (library, airport database, aircraft database, live data distribution and recording from ATM system - radar, RDPS, FDPS, CFMU, network exchange messages...).
4. Airborne systems information ( ACARS messages) and AOC systems, aircraft performance statistics, traffic samples and air movement data.
1. Validation method, methodologies, procedures, metrics, tools.
2. Hierarchical methodologies.
3. Studies of certification issues for new technologies and systems.
4. system validation through modelling and simulation.
5. integration and validation of technologies. 6. Concept validation.
7. Collection, analysis and validation of test results.
9. Coverage-based, fault-based, error-based testing and validation.
10. Requirement specification.
11. Test plans - acceptance, system and sub-system integration, module-level.
Large scale validation Experiments
1. Validation experiments, trials.
2. Pre-operational trials.
3. Trials - air/ground, ground/air, air/air.
4. Pilot installations to ease the large-scale validation of proposed solutions.
5. Validation of measurement tools and models.
6. Functional mock-ups.
7. Validation at component, sub-system and system levels.
8. Operational validation by flight testing.
Large scale validation Platforms
1. Ground validation benches.
2. Aircraft equipped for test and validation in an operational context.
3. Technology demonstrators, technology integration platforms (TIPs).
4. Integrated platforms for system development, safety analysis and certification.
5. Wind tunnels.
6. Prototyping tools.
7. Digital mock-ups.
8. Validation vehicles for powerplants, avionics, aircraft structure, aircraft systems, flight software.
9. Combined validation platforms for multiple technology programmes.
10. Advanced experimental testbeds.